Sum P. Lee
Professor Emeritus
Division of Gastroenterology

Faculty Information

Dr. Lee is a professor emeritus and a specialist in gastroenterology. Formly, he was the Cyrus E. Rubin Endowed Chair and Head of the UW Division of Gastroenterology, as well as former Dean of Medicine of the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine at the University of Hong Kong. He received his MBBS and MD degrees from HKU in 1970 and 1980 respectively, and his PhD in 1978 from the University of Auckland, New Zealand.
His research interests includes the pathophysiology of biliary tract disorders, examining biliary lipids using biochemical and biophysical techniques, and the pathophysiology of biliary epithelial cells using cell culture systems. He also conducts clinical studies on biliary tract imaging and epidemiology of gallstone formation.
Dr. Lee refers to himself as a physician-educator- scientist practicing a "quiet art". To his patients, he is a learned, compassionate and caring physician. He regards taking care of the sick as life's calling. To his students, he is a warm, generous and engaging mentor and friend. His peer researchers revere him as a creative, visionary, highly organised, and disciplined thinker. As a leader and an administrator, he is driven by a sense of honesty, fairness and humility. He is a man of few words and loves reading, poetry, music, and Chinese calligraphy.
Education & Training: 
Fellowship in Gastroenterology
University of Auckland
PhD in Biochemistry & Cell Biology
University of Auckland
Residency in Medicine
University of Hong Kong and University of Auckland
University of Hong Kong
Fogarty Research Scholar
Harvard Medical School
Lee SP, Nicholson GI. Ceroid enteropathy and vitamin E deficiency. N Z Med J. 1976 May 12;83(563):318-20.
Yu DY, Lee SP. Effect of acupuncture on bronchial asthma. Clin Sci Mol Med. 1976 Nov;51(5):503-9.
Lee SP, Lai KS. Exocrine pancreatic function in hepatic cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1976 Mar;65(3):244-8.
Lee SP, Coverdale HA, Nicholson GI. Oxygen therapy for pneumatosis coli: a report of two cases and a review. Aust N Z J Med. 1977 Feb;7(1):44-6.
Lee SP, Tasman-Jones C, Wattie WJ. Traumatic hemobilia: a complication of percutaneous liver biopsy. Gastroenterology. 1977 May;72(5 Pt 1):941-4.
Lee SP, Nicholson GI, Hitchcock G. Familial abdominal chemodectomas with associated cutaneous angiolipomas. Pathology. 1977 Apr;9(2):173-7.
Lee SP, Holloway WD, Nicholson GI. The medical dissolution of phytobezoars using cellulase. Br J Surg. 1977 Jun;64(6):403-5.
Clarke AC, Lee SP, Nicholson GI. Gastritis varioliformis. Chronic erosive gastritis with protein-losing gastropathy. Am J Gastroenterol. 1977 Dec;68(6):599-602.
Tasman-Jones C, Kay RG, Lee SP. Zinc and copper deficiency, with particular reference to parenteral nutrition. Surg Annu. 1978;10:23-52.
a histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1978 Jan-Feb;5(1):61-6.
Holloway WD, Tasman-Jones C, Lee SP. Digestion of certain fractions of dietary fiber in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978 Jun;31(6):927-30.
Lee SP, Clarke AC, Tasman-Jones C. Effect of cimetidine on the healing of restraint- induced gastric erosions in the rat. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1978 Jul-Aug;5(4):383-5.
Scoular RS, Lee SP. Gastric phytobezoar. Aust N Z J Med. 1979 Apr;9(2):207.
Holloway WD, Lee SP, Nicholson GI. The composition and dissolution of phytobezoars. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1980 Mar;104(3):159-61.
Clarke AC, Lee SP, Tasman-Jones C. Effects of cimetidine on the healing of benign gastric ulcers. Aust N Z J Med. 1980 Aug;10(4):430-2.
Lee SP. Vitamin E treatment for brown bowel syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 1979 Nov;54(11):752.
Lee SP, Lim TH, Pybus J, Clarke AC. Tissue distribution of orally administered bismuth in the rat. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1980 May-Jun;7(3):319-24.
Lee SP, Scott AJ. Further observations in lincomycin-induced cholelithiasis in guinea-pigs. J Pathol. 1980 Jun;131(2):117-25.
Lee SP, LaMont JT, Carey MC. Role of gallbladder mucus hypersecretion in the evolution of cholesterol gallstones. J Clin Invest. 1981 Jun;67(6):1712-23.
Lee SP, Carey MC, LaMont JT. Aspirin prevention of cholesterol gallstone formation in prairie dogs. Science. 1981 Mar 27;211(4489):1429-31.
Lee SP. Increased hepatic fibrogenesis in the cholesterol-fed mouse. Clin Sci (Lond). 1981 Aug;61(2):253-6.
Yeong ML, Nicholson GI, Lee SP. Regression of biliary cirrhosis following choledochal cyst drainage. Gastroenterology. 1982 Feb;82(2):332-5.
Lee SP. Studies on the absorption and excretion of tripotassium dicitrato-bismuthate in man. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1981 Nov;34(2):359-64.
Eason RJ, Lee SP, Tasman-Jones C. Inflammatory bowel disease in Auckland, New Zealand. Aust N Z J Med. 1982 Apr;12(2):125-31.
Roberton AM, Lee SP, Lindop R, Stanley RA, Thomsen L, Tasman-Jones C. Biliary control of beta-glucuronidase activity in the luminal contents of the rat ileum, cecum, and rectum. Cancer Res. 1982 Dec;42(12):5165-6.
Lee SP. Rising female predominance in incidence of gastric ulcer. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1982 Sep 25;285(6345):853-4.
Lee SP. The stomach after cholecystectomy. Am J Surg. 1983 Sep;146(3):325-7.
Alley PG, Lee SP. The increased risk of proximal colonic cancer after cholecystectomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 1983 Aug;26(8):522-4.
Stanley RA, Lee SP, Roberton AM. Heterogeneity in gastrointestinal mucins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1983 Oct 18;760(2):262-9.
Simmons GC, Yeong ML, Lee SP. The association of hepatitis B viral infection and hepatocellular carcinoma in New Zealand. N Z Med J. 1983 Sep 14;96(739):669-71.
Lee SP. Postoperative phytobezoars. Gastroenterology. 1983 Dec;85(6):1456-7.
Lee SP. Effects of histamine and histamine antagonists on hepatic bile flow in the conscious sheep. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1984 Jan-Feb;11(1):61-9.
Thomsen LL, Roberton AM, Wong J, Lee SP, Tasman-Jones C. Intra-caecal short chain fatty acids are altered by dietary pectin in the rat. Digestion. 1984;29(3):129-37.
Lee SP, Lane MR, Yeong ML, Maher K. A clinical-pathological study on chronic hepatitis in Auckland. NZ Med J. 1984 Aug 8;97(761):515-7.
Lane MR, Lee SP, Yeong ML, Woodfield DG. Hepatitis B viral infections: clinical, pathological, serological features and treatment. NZ Med J. 1985 Feb 13;98(772):57-61.
Lane M, Lee SP, Tasman-Jones C, Nicholson G. Tripotassium dicitrato-bismuthate tablets v liquid in the treatment of duodenal ulcers. N Z Med J. 1985 Mar 27;98(775):191- 2.
Lee SP, Brown P. Clinical trial of pirenzepine in duodenal ulcer healing. NZ Med J1985;97:207-208.
Smith GW, Tasman-Jones C, Wiggins PM, Lee SP. Pig gastric mucus: a one-way barrier for H+. Gastroenterology. 1985 Dec;89(6):1313-8.
Lindop R, Tasman-Jones C, Thomsen LL, Lee SP. Cellulose and pectin alter intestinal beta-glucuronidase (EC in the rat. Br J Nutr. 1985 Jul;54(1):21-6.
Smith GW, Wiggins PM, Lee SP, Tasman-Jones C. Diffusion of butyrate through pig colonic mucus in vitro. Clin Sci (Lond). 1986 Mar;70(3):271-6.
Lee SP, Nicholls JF. Nature and composition of biliary sludge. Gastroenterology. 1986 Mar;90(3):677-86.
Lee SP, Paxton JW, Choong YS. Plasma and biliary disposition of pirenzepine in man. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1986 Mar;13(3):241-8.
Lee SP, Tasman-Jones C, Carlisle V. Oleic acid-induced cholelithiasis in rabbits. Changes in bile composition and gallbladder morphology. Am J Pathol. 1986 Jul;124(1):18-24.
Bollard JE, Vanderwee MA, Smith GW, Tasman-Jones C, Gavin JB, Lee SP. Preservation of mucus in situ in rat colon. Dig Dis Sci. 1986 Dec;31(12):1338-44.
Bollard JE, Vanderwee MA, Smith GW, Tasman-Jones C, Gavin JB, Lee SP. Location of bacteria in the mid-colon of the rat. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 Mar;51(3):604-8.
Lee SP, Nicholls JF, Robertson AM. Effects of trimoprostil, a prostaglandin E2 analogue, on human gastric acid secretion and soluble mucin output. Eur J Clin Invest. 1987 Feb;17(1):1-6.
Lee SP, Nicholls JF. Diffusion of charged ions in mucus gel: effect of net charge. Biorheology. 1987;24(6):565-9.
Lee SP, Park HZ, Madani H, Kaler EW. Partial characterization of a nonmicellar system of cholesterol solubilization in bile. Am J Physiol. 1987 Mar;252(3 Pt 1):G374-83.
Lane MR, Hannon S, Woodfield DG, Goldwater PN, Lee SP. Acute viral hepatitis in Auckland. N Z Med J. 1987 Feb 25;100(818):99-102.
Ramirez AM, Lee SP, Woodfield DG. Hepatitis delta virus infection: a recently imported disease in New Zealand. N Z Med J. 1987 Apr 22;100(822):235-7.
Tasman-Jones C, Maher C, Thomsen L, Lee SP, Vanderwee M. Mucosal defences and gastroduodenal disease. Digestion. 1987;37 Suppl 2:1-7.
Lee SP, Nicholls JF, Roberton AM, Park HZ. Effect of pepsin on partially purified pig gastric mucus and purified mucin. Biochem Cell Biol. 1988 May;66(5):367-73.
Lee SP, Maher K, Nicholls JF. Origin and fate of biliary sludge. Gastroenterology. 1988 Jan;94(1):170-6.
Lane MR, Lee SP. Recurrence of duodenal ulcer after medical treatment. Lancet. 1988 May 21;1(8595):1147-9.
Lee SP. Sludge, stones and pregnancy. Gastroenterology 1988;95:1160-1161.
Baron RL, Rohrmann CA Jr, Lee SP, Shuman WP, Teefey SA. CT evaluation of gallstones in vitro: correlation with chemical analysis. Am J Roentgenology Am J Roentgenol. 1988 Dec;151(6):1123-8.
Thomsen L, Tasman-Jones C, Maher K, Wiggins P, Lee SP, Morris A. Na+/H+ ion- exchange property of postmortem human gastric mucus. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1988 Aug;23(6):701-4.
Thomsen L, Tasman-Jones C, Morris A, Wiggins P, Lee SP, Forlong C. Ammonia produced by Campylobacter pylori neutralizes H+ moving through gastric mucus. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1989 Aug;24(6):761-8.
Baron RL, Kuyper SJ, Lee SP, Rohrmann CA Jr, Shuman WP, Nelson JA. In vitro dissolution of gallstones with MTBE: correlation with characteristics at CT and MR imaging. Radiology. 1989 Oct;173(1):117-21.
Baron RL, Shuman WP, Lee SP, et al. In vitro magnetic resonance imaging of gallstones at 1.5 Telsa. Am J Radiology 1990;153:497-502.
Lee SP. Pathogenesis of biliary sludge. Hepatology. 1990 Sep;12(3 Pt 2):200S-203S; discussion 203S-205S. Review.
Little TE, Lee SP, Madani H, Kaler EW, Chinn K. Interconversions of lipid aggregates in rat and model bile. Am J Physiol. 1991 Jan;260(1 Pt 1):G70-9.
Oda D, Lee SP, Hayashi A. Long-term culture and partial characterization of dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Lab Invest. 1991 May;64(5):682-92.
Baer JF, Weller RE, Dagle GE, Malaga CA, Lee SP. Cholelithiasis in owl monkeys: seven cases. Lab Anim Sci. 1990 Nov;40(6):629-33.
Lee SP, Choong YS, Park HZ. Isolation and partial characterization of a soluble mucin in human pancreatic juice. Biochem Cell Biol. 1991 Aug;69(8):566-71.
Roberton AM, Rabel B, Harding CA, Tasman-Jones C, Harris PJ, Lee SP. Use of the ileal conduit as a model for studying human small intestinal mucus glycoprotein secretion. Am J Physiol. 1991 Nov;261(5 Pt 1):G728-34.
Lehman CD, Goldman ML, Baron RL, Richardson ML, Starr FE 3rd, Lee SP. Gallstone susceptibility to in vitro fragmentation by a 480-nm pulsed dye laser. Correlation with computed tomography characteristics. Invest Radiol. 1991 Sep;26(9):799-803.
Lee SP, Nicholls JF, Park HZ. Biliary sludge as a cause of acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med. 1992 Feb 27;326(9):589-93.
Kim YS, Kestell MF, Lee SP. Gall-bladder sludge: lessons from ceftriaxone. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1992 Nov-Dec;7(6):618-21.
Kestell MF, Sekijima J, Lee SP, Park HZ, Long M, Kaler EW. A calcium-binding protein in bile and gallstones. Hepatology. 1992 Dec;16(6):1315-21.
Little TE, Madani H, Lee SP, Kaler EW. Lipid vesicle fusion induced by phospholipase C activity in model bile. J Lipid Res. 1993 Feb;34(2):211-7.
Jacobson AF, Teefey SA, Lee SP, Hollister MS, Higano CA, Bianco JA. Frequent occurrence of new hepatobiliary abnormalities after bone marrow transplantation: results of a prospective study using scintigraphy and sonography. Am J Gastroenterol. 1993 Jul;88(7):1044-9.
Luk AS, Kaler EW, Lee SP. Phospholipase C-induced aggregation and fusion of cholesterol-lecithin small unilamellar vesicles. Biochemistry. 1993 Jul 13;32(27):6965-73.
Teefey SA, Hollister MS, Lee SP, Jacobson AF, Higano CS, Bianco JA, Colacurcio CJ. Gallbladder sludge formation after bone marrow transplant: sonographic observations. Abdom Imaging. 1994 Jan-Feb;19(1):57-60.
Long MA, Kaler EW, Lee SP. Characterization of lecithin-taurodeoxycholate mixed micelles using small angle neutron scattering and static and dynamic light scattering. J Physical Chem 1994;98:4402-4410.
Rabel B, Cornish J, Lee SP, Harris PJ, Tasman-Jones C, Roberton AM. A constituent of human small intestinal mucus that copurifies with mucin and can interfere with raising antibodies to the mucin. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1994 Apr;32(6):995-1000.
Kuver R, Ramesh N, Lau S, Savard C, Lee SP, Osborne WR. Constitutive mucin secretion linked to CFTR expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Sep 30;203(3):1457-62.
Kuver R, Savard C, Oda D, Lee SP. PGE generates intracellular cAMP and accelerates mucin secretion by cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Am J Physiol. 1994 Dec;267(6 Pt 1):G998-1003.
Klinkspoor JH, Kuver R, Savard CE, Oda D, Azzouz H, Tytgat GN, Groen AK, Lee SP. Model bile and bile salts accelerate mucin secretion by cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Gastroenterology. 1995 Jul;109(1):264-74.
Kim MH, Sekijima J, Lee SP. Primary intrahepatic stones. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995 Apr;90(4):540-8.
Kim MH, Sekijima J, Park HZ, Lee SP. Structure and composition of primary intrahepatic stones in Korean patients. Dig Dis Sci. 1995 Oct;40(10):2143-51.
Oda DP, Eng L, Savard CE, Newcomer M, Haigh WG, Lee SP. Organotypic culture of human gallbladder epithelium. Exp Mol Pathol. 1995 Aug;63(1):16-22.
Roberton AM, Rabel B, Stubbs L, Tasman-Jones C, Lee SP. Aspirin changes the secretion rate and amino acid composition of human small intestinal mucin in subjects with ileal conduits. Glycoconj J. 1996 Oct;13(5):781-9.
Oda D, Savard CE, Nguyen TD, Eng L, Swenson ER, Lee SP. Dog pancreatic duct epithelial cells: long-term culture and characterization. Am J Pathol. 1996 Mar;148(3):977-85.
Klinkspoor JH, Tytgat GN, Lee SP, Groen AK. Mechanism of bile salt-induced mucin secretion by cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Biochem J. 1996 Jun 15;316 ( Pt 3):873-7.
Ko CW, Murakami C, Sekijima JH, Kim MH, McDonald GB, Lee SP. Chemical composition of gallbladder sludge in patients after marrow transplantation. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996 Jun;91(6):1207-10.
Glickerman DJ, Kim MH, Malik R, Lee SP. The gallbladder also secretes. Dig Dis Sci. 1997 Mar;42(3):489-91.
Nguyen TD, Koh DS, Moody MW, Fox NR, Savard CE, Kuver R, Hille B, Lee SP. Characterization of two distinct chloride channels in cultured dog pancreatic duct epithelial cells. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jan;272(1 Pt 1):G172-80.
Cao S, Cox K, So SS, Berquist W, Lee SP, Haigh WG, Concepcion W, Monge H, Esquivel CO. Potential effect of cyclosporin A in formation of cholesterol gallstones in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Dig Dis Sci. 1997 Jul;42(7):1409-15.
Ko CW, Gooley T, Schoch HG, Myerson D, Hackman RC, Shulman HM, Sale GE, Lee SP, McDonald GB. Acute pancreatitis in marrow transplant patients: prevalence at autopsy and risk factor analysis. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1997 Dec;20(12):1081-6.
Lafont H, Domingo N, Groen A, Kaler EW, Lee SP, Koehler R, Ostrow JD, Veis A. APF/CBP, the small, amphipathic, anionic protein(s) in bile and gallstones, consists of lipid-binding and calcium-binding forms. Hepatology. 1997 May;25(5):1054-63.
Malik R, Lee SK, Savard CE, Oda D, Wong WS, Chan BY, Lee SP. The effect of N- methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine on cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Hepatology. 1997 Nov;26(5):1296-302.
Oda D, Savard CE, Eng L, Sekijima J, Haigh G, Lee SP. Reconstituted human oral and esophageal mucosa in culture. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 1998 Jan;34(1):46-52.
Oda D, Savard CE, Nguyen TD, Swenson ER, Lee SP. Culture of human main pancreatic duct epithelial cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 1998 Mar;34(3):211-6.
Luk AS, Kaler EW, Lee SP. Protein lipid interaction in bile: effects of biliary proteins on the stability of cholesterol-lecithin vesicles. Biochemistry. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 Feb 23;1390(3):282-92.
Choi JW, Haigh WG, Lee SP. Caveat: mycoplasma arginine deiminase masquerading as nitric oxide synthase in cell cultures. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 Sep 16;1404(3):314-20.
Nguyen TD, Moody MW, Savard CE, Lee SP. Secretory effects of ATP on nontransformed dog pancreatic duct epithelial cells. Am J Physiol. 1998 Jul;275(1 Pt 1):G104-13.
Ko CW, Kowdley KV, Haigh WG, Lee SP. Biliary lipid composition after liver transplantation: effect of allograft function and cyclosporine. Liver Transpl Surg. 1998 Jul;4(4):258-64.
Ko CW, Sekijima JH, Lee SP. Biliary sludge. Ann Intern Med. 1999 Feb 16;130(4 Pt 1):301-11.
Choi J, Klinkspoor JH, Yoshida T, Lee SP. Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli stimulates mucin secretion by cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Hepatology. 1999 May;29(5):1352-7.
Mason B, Ghanee N, Haigh WG, Lee SP, Oda D. Effect of vitamins A, C and E on normal and HPV-immortalized human oral epithelial cells in culture. Anticancer Res. 1999 Nov- Dec;19(6B):5469-74.
Seppen J, Barry SC, Klinkspoor JH, Katen LJ, Lee SP, Garcia JV, Osborne WR. Apical gene transfer into quiescent human and canine polarized intestinal epithelial cells by lentivirus vectors. J Virol. 2000 Aug;74(16):7642-5.
Ko CW, Beresford SA, Alderman B, Jarvik GP, Schulte SJ, Calhoun B, Tsuchida AM, Koepsell TD, Lee SP. Apolipoprotein E genotype and the risk of gallbladder disease in pregnancy. Hepatology. 2000 Jan;31(1):18-23.
Zhang M, Schleicher RL, Fink AS, Gunter-Smith P, Savard C, Nguyen T, Lee SP. Growth and function of isolated canine pancreatic ductal cells. Pancreas. 2000 Jan;20(1):67-76.
Kuver R, Klinkspoor JH, Osborne WR, Lee SP. Mucous granule exocytosis and CFTR expression in gallbladder epithelium. Glycobiology. 2000 Feb;10(2):149-57.
Liu Y, Lam K, Tang YJ, Gumerlock PH, Lee DK, Kim MH, Lee SP, Silva J Jr, Leung JW. Anaerobic bacteria and intrahepatic stones: detections of Clostridium sp. and Bacteroides fragilis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2000 Sep;113(9):858-61.
Wrenn SP, Gudheti M, Veleva AN, Kaler EW, Lee SP. Characterization of model bile using fluorescence energy transfer from dehydroergosterol to dansylated lecithin. J Lipid Res. 2001 Jun;42(6):923-34.
Yoshida T, Klinkspoor JH, Kuver R, Poot M, Rabinovitch PS, Wrenn SP, Kaler EW, Lee SP. Effects of bile salts on cholestan-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol-induced apoptosis in dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Feb 26;1530(2-3):199-208.
Lee SP, Ko CW. Gallstones. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2001 Sep;17(5):463-7.
Lee SP, Ko CW. Pronucleating proteins in bile-a myth? J Hepatol. 2001 Oct;35(4):525-6
Haigh WG, Lee SP. Identification of oxysterols in human bile and pigment gallstones. Gastroenterology. 2001 Jul;121(1):118-23.
Swidsinski A, Lee SP. The role of bacteria in gallstone pathogenesis. Front Biosci. 2001 Oct 1;6:E93-103
Stelzner M, Somasundaram S, Lee SP, Kuver R. Ileal mucosal bile acid absorption is increased in cftr knockout mice. BMC Gastroenterology 2001;1:10-26.
Fink AS, Wang Y, Mendez T, Worrell RT, Eaton D, Nguyen TD, Lee SP. Angiotensin II evokes calcium-mediated signaling events in isolated dog pancreatic epithelial cells. Pancreas. 2002 Oct;25(3):290-5.
Yen TW, Aardal NP, Bronner MP, Thorning DR, Savard CE, Lee SP, Bell RH Jr. Myofibroblasts are responsible for the desmoplastic reaction surrounding human pancreatic carcinomas. Surgery. 2002 Feb;131(2):129-34.
Ko CW, Lee SP. Epidemiology and natural history of common bile duct stones and prediction of disease. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002 Dec;56(6 Suppl):S165-9.
Yoshida T, Matsuzaki Y, Haigh WG, Fukushima S, Ikezawa K, Tanaka N, Lee SP. Origin of oxysterols in hepatic bile of patients with biliary infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Oct;98(10):2275-80.
Gudheti MV, Gonzalez YI, Lee SP, Wrenn SP. Interaction of apolipoprotein A-I with lecithin-cholesterol vesicles in the presence of phospholipase C. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Dec 30;1635(2-3):127-41.
Park SM, Choi JW, Kim ST, Cho MC, Sung RH, Jang LC, Park JW, Lee SP, Park YH. Suppression of proliferative cholangitis in a rat model by local delivery of paclitaxel. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2003;10(2):176-82.
Troup GM, Tulenko TN, Lee SP, Wrenn SP. Detection and characterization of laterally phase separated cholesterol microdomains in model lipid membranes. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 2003;29:217-231.
Kuver R, Lee SP. Calcium binding to biliary mucins is dependent on sodium ion concentration: relevance to cystic fibrosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Feb 6;314(2):330-4.
Yoon JH, Canbay AE, Werneburg NW, Lee SP, Gores GJ. Oxysterols induce cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cholangiocytes: Implications for biliary tract carcinogenesis. Hepatology. 2004 Mar;39(3):732-8.
Troup GM, Tulenko TN, Lee SP, Wrenn SP. Estimating the size of laterally phase separated cholesterol microdomains in model membranes with Főrster resonance energy transfer; a simulation study. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 2004;33:57-65.
Guarino AJ, Lee SP, Tulenko TN, Wrenn SP. Aggregation kinetics of low density lipoproteins upon exposure to sphingomyelinase. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2004 Nov 1;279(1):109-16.
Seo DW, Choi HS, Lee SP, Kuver R. Oxysterols from human bile induce apoptosis of canine gallbladder epithelial cells in monolayer culture. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004 Dec;287(6):G1247-56.
Ko CW, Beresford SA, Schulte SJ, Matsumoto AM, Lee SP. Incidence, natural history, and risk factors for biliary sludge and stones during pregnancy. Hepatology. 2005 Feb;41(2):359-65.
Ioannou GN, Weiss NS, Boyko EJ, Kahn SE, Lee SP. Contribution of metabolic factors to alanine aminotransferase activity in persons with other causes of liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2005 Mar;128(3):627-35.
Ko CW, Lee SP. Dietary carbohydrates and gallstones: is there a link? Gastroenterology. 2005 Jul;129(1):373-5.
Ko CW, Schulte SJ, Lee SP. Biliary sludge is formed by modification of hepatic bile by the gallbladder mucosa. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Jul;3(7):672-8.
Guarino AJ, Lee SP, Wrenn SP. Interactions between sphingomyelin and cholesterol in low density lipoproteins and model membranes. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2006 Jan 1;293(1):203-12.
Ioannou GN, Boyko EJ, Lee SP. The prevalence and predictors of elevated serum aminotransferase activity in the United States in 1999-2002. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Jan;101(1):76-82.
Haigh WG, Wong T, Lee SP. The production of oxysterols in bile by activated human leukocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 May 5;343(2):467-9.
Ioannou GN, Weiss NS, Boyko EJ, Mozaffarian D, Lee SP. Elevated serum alanine aminotransferase activity and calculated risk of coronary heart disease in the United States. Hepatology. 2006 May;43(5):1145-51.
Kuver R, Lee SP. Hypertonic saline for cystic fibrosis. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 27;354(17):1848-51.
Kuver R, Wong T, Klinkspoor JH, Lee SP. Absence of CFTR is associated with pleiotropic effects on mucins in mouse gallbladder epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006 Dec;291(6):G1148-54.
Choi HS, Savard CE, Choi JW, Kuver R, Lee SP. Paclitaxel interrupts TGF-beta1 signaling between gallbladder epithelial cells and myofibroblasts. J Surg Res. 2007 Aug;141(2):183-91.
Ioannou GN, Splan MF, Weiss NS, McDonald GB, Beretta L, Lee SP. Incidence and predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Aug;5(8):938-45.
Lowe AW, Olsen M, Hao Y, Lee SP, Taek Lee K, Chen X, van de Rijn M, Brown PO. Gene expression patterns in pancreatic tumors, cells and tissues. PLoS One. 2007 Mar 28;2(3):e323.
Nason KS, Farrow DC, Haigh G, Lee SP, Bronner MP, Rosen SN, Vaughan TL. Gastric fluid bile concentrations and risk of Barrett's esophagus. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2007 Jun;6(3):304-7.
Kuver R, Savard CE, Lee SK, Haigh WG, Lee SP. Murine gallbladder epithelial cells can differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Nov;293(5):G944-55.
Ko CW, Beresford SA, Schulte SJ, Lee SP. Insulin resistance and incident gallbladder disease in pregnancy. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Jan;6(1):76-81.
Larter CZ, Yeh MM, Haigh WG, Williams J, Brown S, Bell-Anderson KS, Lee SP, Farrell GC. Hepatic free fatty acids accumulate in experimental steatohepatitis: role of adaptive pathways. J Hepatol. 2008 Apr;48(4):638-47.
Wang DQ, Lee SP. Physical chemistry of intestinal absorption of biliary cholesterol in mice. Hepatology. 2008 Jul;48(1):177-85.
Alpini G, Invernizzi P, Gaudio E, Venter J, Kopriva S, Bernuzzi F, Onori P, Franchitto A, Coufal M, Frampton G, Alvaro D, Lee SP, Marzioni M, Benedetti A, DeMorrow S. Serotonin metabolism is dysregulated in cholangiocarcinoma, which has implications for tumor growth. Cancer Res. 2008 Nov 15;68(22):9184-93.
Marques MA, Kulstad JJ, Savard CE, Green PS, Lee SP, Craft S, Watson GS, Cook DG. Peripheral amyloid-beta levels regulate amyloid-beta clearance from the central nervous system. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;16(2):325-9.
bile duct fibroblasts and cholangiocytes. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Jul;24(7):1218-25.
Van Rooyen DM, Larter CZ, Haigh WG, Yeh MM, Ioannou G, Kuver R, Lee SP, Teoh NC, Farrell GC. Hepatic free cholesterol accumulates in obese, diabetic mice and causes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology. 2011 Oct;141(4):1393-403
Jusakul A, Loilome W, Namwat N, Haigh WG, Kuver R, Dechakhamphu S, Sukontawarin P, Pinlaor S, Lee SP, Yongvanit P. Liver fluke-induced hepatic oxysterols stimulate DNA damage and apoptosis in cultured human cholangiocytes. Mutat Res. 2012 Mar 1;731(1- 2):48-57.
Wong EY, Gaster B, Lee SP. East meets West: current issues relevant to integrating Chinese medicine. Chin Med. 2012 Sep 3;7(1):20.
Ko CW, Napolitano PG, Lee SP, Schulte SD, Ciol MA, Beresford SA. Physical Activity, Maternal Metabolic Measures, and the Incidence of Gallbladder Sludge or Stones during Pregnancy: A Randomized Trial. Am J Perinatol. 2014, 31:39-48
Tiderington E, Lee SP, Ko CW. Gallstones: new insights into an old story. FAc 1000Res 2016; 1817 dol:10.12688
Lee SP, Roberts JR, Kuver R. The changing faces of cholangitis. Fac 1000 Res 2016; 1409:dol 10
Ioannou GN, Subramanian S, Chait A, Haigh WG, Yeh MM, Farrell GC, Lee SP, Savard C. Cholesterol crystallization within hepatocyte lipid droplets and its role in murine NASH. J Lipid Res; 2017 58: 1067-1079
Ioannou GN, Landis CS, Jin GY, Haigh WG, Farrell GC, Kuver R, Lee SP, Savard C. Cholesterol crystals in hepatocyte droplets are strongly associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatol Commun; 2019 April 1;3(6) 776-791